The analysis of each two months shows that this same profile is maintained. The water quality was compromised, most of the time, due to E. The quality score of these parameters, obtained through the average specific quality curve, on average, was 32 and 55, respectively.
Too Many Indicators and Indices Make Monitoring Water Quality a Murky Business
The E. Water bodies that cross densely populated urban areas present an evident impairment of water quality due to the contribution of treated effluents or in natura sanitary sewers ANA, This shows that the introduction of sanitary sewers into waterways is a problem that can be considered global. Sanitary sewage is rich in other forms of nitrogen, such as organic nitrogen and ammonia, thus justifying the fact that CETESB uses total nitrogen. As the values are very similar, it is noted that it is not the total nitrogen or nitrate difference that is responsible for the discrepant classifications.
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The non-agreement of the bands was due to the values practiced by band to quality classification, more restrictive in the case of IGAM. Comparing the last two columns of Figure 2 , it is noted that there is no difference between the calculation methods considering total nitrogen or nitrate. Considering that, in terms of calculating the WQI, the only difference between the IGAM and the CETESB method is the nitrogen related parameter, and analyzing the last two columns of Figure 2 , it can be said that the second hypothesis is probably the more correct, at least in numerical terms.
Water Quality Index
A small underestimation is noted when considering the IGAM calculation method; the only way to do this is to have the nitrate concentration higher than the total nitrogen concentration. It would expect that the index of Naveedullah et al. While, the pH parameter slightly interferes with the water quality variability, since, within the database analyzed, it is the parameter that presents the highest quality average, with one of the smallest standard deviations, that is, little variation.
While the Naveedullah et al. The method presented by Moscuzza et al. It is important to note that the cost of the analytical process involved can be a limiting factor for water quality assessment Kannel et al. Thus, if some water quality inconsistency is observed, using the minimum or reduced indices, more precise analyzes could be performed so that management plans could be elaborated.
Therefore, it is essential to maintain periodic monitoring routinely. Another advantage of using the minimum and reduced indices presented in this study is the easiness in which all the parameters contemplated in these indices can be obtained; as they can be monitored using multiparameter water quality probes.
The use of multi-parameter probes can reduce the amount of data lost, since sampling, packaging and transport are not required - practices that could lead to loss of samples. Another interesting factor is the reduction in labor costs, chemical reagents and laboratory infrastructure. Also, the environmental cost of the analytical products used in the analyzes can be minimized.
The use of these types of equipment to monitor water quality also enables real-time availability of data on websites and mobile apps; even thinking about the possibility of a WQI in real time. When the minimum and reduced indices were classified by the WQI IGAM method and compared to the same, it was almost always observed that the water quality of the basin under study was overestimated. Moscuzza et al. The way each one is calculated, the selected parameters may have favored obtaining better correlations.
Monitoring by means of such indices would allow obtaining a monitoring map of water quality at a frequency lower than those currently used. In addition, the minimum and reduced indices presented and evaluated in this research have the potential to enable a monitoring system in real time, since all the considered parameters can be obtained directly using multi-parameter probes, and that the monitored data can be easily stored in data loggers and transmitted via satellite, radio, among others.
Comparing the values presented in Table 2 with Table 3 , it is verified that little compatibility of classes of the reduced index when classified in the new bands and compared to the WQI IGAM changed a little. The new bands were developed in order to provide better equivalence between the reduced index and the WQI IGAM - as verified and confirmed in the previous chapter. Therefore, given the unsatisfactory results, it is inferred that the new band are specific to the conditions in which they were developed. It can be observed, comparing the data presented in Table 2 with Table 4 , which the percentage of points with class compatibility reduced and the underestimation of water quality increased significantly.
On the other hand, the reduced index presented better equivalence of classes when classified by the WQI IGAM method and compared to the same. To obtain more reliable results using the minimum indices, their values must be well correlated with the index currently practiced, and it is necessary to maintain routine periodic monitoring to evaluate the minimum indices, avoiding mistaken decisions. Minimum and reduced indices are useful and practicable tools regarding the use of WQI for management purposes.
In addition, a monitoring system can be seen in real time, with the use of telemetry and website hosting without great additional costs. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our wonderful colleague, Prof. Ecological Indicators ANA, p.
Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10 4 Accessed: Aug 25, Accessed: Jul 26, Porto Alegre, Artmed, 3 ed. Public Lab Wiki documentation. Choose image or drag one here. Create a password. Sign up or Log in. Log in or sign up to join the Public Lab community. Username Password. Log in Remember me. The page have charts relating the water quality value derived with the level of each parameter. Users who liked this kanarinka liz Print without page links Print in 3-column layout.
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