PDF 2119 – The Year Global Democracy Will Be Realized - Student Edition

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Unfortunately, imposters can obtain fraudulent documents, such as birth and marriage certificates, with relative ease. In , the government opened 69 terrorism-related cases and detained 30 people for terrorism-related crimes.

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Resource constraints, a lack of training in investigative techniques, and inexperience with trying terrorism cases plagued a weak judicial system. The Malian government has never investigated, prosecuted, and sentenced any terrorists from start to finish. Mali has taken steps to improve its institutional capacity to fight terrorism, passing laws that create new terrorism-related offenses and allow for the use of special investigative techniques.

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This includes setting up a Special Judicial Interagency Work Group against terrorism and its equivalent for law enforcement — the specialized judicial brigade — and working with international partners to build the capacity of these units, including the UN Office of Drugs and Crime. Mali worked cooperatively with the United States to prevent acts of terrorism against U.

The Malian judicial system continued its cooperation with U. There were no significant changes since The Ministry of Religious Affairs is responsible for developing and monitoring the national strategy and for working with the High Islamic Council and other religious associations to promote moderate Islam and maintain a secular state. The government launched the Integrated Central Region Security Plan in August, which aims first to secure and then re-establish government services across the Mopti region and the neighboring Segou region, which also experienced increasing insecurity.

Mali also participated in Global Counterterrorism Forum events. The Malian military participated in multinational border security operations under the G-5 Sahel mandate. Following a December U. Since , when U. The government has continued its counterterrorism cooperation with the United States and seized opportunities to participate in U. Through the support of the United States and other partners such as France, Mauritania deployed 20, soldiers, divided between seven military regions around the country.

Despite these efforts, regions in the interior of Mauritania remained imperfectly monitored, owing to their geographic isolation from population centers and inhospitable desert conditions.

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AQIM elements and like-minded terrorist groups were present in the region, particularly along the southeastern border with Mali, which remained the leading terrorist threat to Mauritania in Owing to their geographic isolation from population centers, hard-to-access areas of the Sahara Desert further complicated efforts to monitor and secure borders.

This decision was motivated by the increased and diverse trafficking of prohibited goods through this region. In collaboration with Mauritanian authorities, the Senegalese security forces arrested two suspected Algerian terrorists from ISIS on October 6 at the Mauritanian border crossing of Rosso. The two suspects were wanted by the Government of Algeria.

In , Mauritania applied for membership within the Egmont Group. There were no other significant changes since The workshop was organized in cooperation with the American Friendship Project. The MIATE collaborated with independent Islamic religious groups to counter radicalization to violence in a series of workshops in all 15 provinces. In coordination with two University of Nouakchott professors, a think tank, and some society leaders, the U. Embassy organized a two-day awareness training workshop for university students on violent extremism, how to recognize possible recruitment activities, and strategies to counter them.

Mauritania will be responsible for the western sector of the G-5 Sahel Joint Force located along the border between Mauritania and Mali.

Terrorists, weapons, and contraband transited freely through the vast northern part of Niger. Niger remained a strong opponent of terrorism in the region, continued to cooperate with international partners, and received substantial international counterterrorism assistance. Foreign assistance has helped the Nigerien military increase its capability to patrol, collect information, and interdict terrorists. Niger has increased its number of border control facilities and is working with the international community to construct and equip these facilities.

Terrorist organizations frequently stole military vehicles and equipment that they then used in later attacks. Terrorist attacks in western Niger focused almost exclusively on security forces, while Boko Haram and ISIS-WA attacked both civilian and military targets in the southeast. Attacks included:.

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Nigerien law enforcement and security services were actively engaged in detecting, deterring, and preventing acts of terrorism on Nigerien territory, but they suffered from insufficient manpower, funding, and equipment. Through the U. Global Security Contingency Fund, a joint interagency program between the U.

Niger continued to use rudimentary terrorism watchlists that it shared with the security services and at border checkpoints. The Government of Niger continued to screen travelers using the U. In , the SCLCT arrested terrorist suspects on charges that included planning acts of terrorism, association with a terrorist organization, recruitment, and terrorist financing.

Courts tried or dismissed approximately terrorism cases. While the law prohibits torture and degrading treatment, there were indications that security officials were sometimes involved in abusing or harming detainees suspected of terrorist activity. As part of a broader counterterrorism strategy, the United States is working with the Government of Niger to improve its capacity to employ forensic investigative tools.

From April to May, the U. Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Defense collected the biometric information of more than 1, terrorism detainees and digitized more than terrorism-linked paper fingerprint records. Niger is the only country in the region where terrorist suspects are identified systematically in a biometric enrollment initiative.

The Government of Niger had not put forth a formal reintegration plan for former combatants by the end of Niger was standing up the Central Sector Command, based in Niamey. Nigerien officials hosted and attended multiple international meetings on countering the two groups. Niger is a member of the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership. Niger participates in a judicial cooperation organization, the Sahel Judicial Platform, with other countries in the region. Nigeria continued to work with other terrorism-affected neighbors in the Multinational Joint Task Force, including Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger to counter-Boko Haram and ISIS-WA, regain control over territory previously held by these groups, and launch efforts to rebuild civilian structures and institutions in cleared areas.

Terrorist activity accounted for the internal displacement of nearly two million persons in the states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe, and the external displacement of more than , Nigerian refugees to neighboring countries, principally Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. The Nigerian government negotiated with Boko Haram for the May 6 release of 82 of the female students abducted by Boko Haram in Chibok in An interdisciplinary assistance team composed of personnel from the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the U.

Agency for International Development continued to coordinate efforts with the Nigerian military at the Defense Intelligence Agency, with daily military-to-military engagement at the Joint Combined Fusion Cell and the Joint Coordination Planning Committee. In its response to Boko Haram and ISIS-WA attacks, and at times in response to crime and insecurity in general, Nigerian security service personnel perpetrated extrajudicial killings and engaged in torture, sexual exploitation and abuse, arbitrary detention, mistreatment of detainees, use of children by some security elements, looting, and destruction of property.

The following list details only a fraction of the incidents that occurred:. The Nigerian Office of the National Security Advisor is responsible on paper for coordinating all security and enforcement agencies. The Nigerian military has primary responsibility for combating terrorism in the Northeast.

Both units are responsible for investigating acts of terrorism and conducting proactive measures to prevent terrorist attacks. Interagency cooperation and information sharing was limited. Due to their knowledge of the local context, community-based security groups, often collectively referred to as the Civilian Joint Task Force, provided critical and necessary responses to the terrorism threat in the Northeast.

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According to a government statement, suspects were arraigned in the initial proceedings. Of these, 45 pled guilty to various charges and were sentenced to between three and 31 years in prison, persons were ordered to undergo a de-radicalization and rehabilitation program before being released, 34 cases were dismissed, and 28 cases were remanded for trial in civilian courts elsewhere in the country. Some human rights groups alleged terrorist suspects detained by the military were denied their rights to legal representation, due process, and to be heard by a judicial authority.

On December 8, the government said it adopted a new strategy for the screening of suspected Boko Haram members and other terrorists. This involved developing a national terrorism database and providing training in investigative interviewing techniques and evidence collection. Coordination among agencies was limited. The Nigerian government continued to participate in U.

The Nigerian government actively cooperated with the United States and other international partners to assist with counterterrorism investigations.

On July 5, the Egmont Group suspended Nigeria for its failure to restructure its financial intelligence unit to make it operationally autonomous and isolated from possible political control, a requirement the Egmont Group places on all of its members. At the end of , this legislation was awaiting passage by the Nigerian House.

Other active, but not yet passed, legislation with a nexus to terrorist financing includes the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Bill and the Proceeds of Crime Bill. The framework was in accordance with relevant UN policy and developed in coordination with various ministries and civil society organizations.

In December, under this framework, the government launched an Action Plan for Demobilization, Disassociation, Reintegration, and Reconciliation in Nigeria. Kaduna state and Kano state are members of the Strong Cities Network. In light of its deep concerns about terrorist activity in the region, the Government of Senegal worked closely with U.